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Authors: Pandharkar, Trupti
Werbovetz, Karl A
Co-Authors: Zhu, Xiaohua
Mathur, Radhika
Jiang, Jinmai
Schmittgen, Thomas D
Shaha, Chandrima
Title: Studies on the antileishmanial mechanism of action of the arylimidamide DB766: azole interactions and role of CYP5122A1
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
Publication Date: Aug-2014
Abstract: Arylimidamides (AIAs) are inspired by diamidine antimicrobials but show superior activity against intracellular parasites. The AIA DB766 {2,5-bis[2-(2-i-propoxy)-4-(2-pyridylimino)aminophenyl]furan hydrochloride} displays outstanding potency against intracellular Leishmania parasites and is effective in murine and hamster models of visceral leishmaniasis when given orally, but its mechanism of action is unknown. In this study, through the use of continuous DB766 pressure, we raised Leishmania donovani axenic amastigotes that displayed 12-fold resistance to this compound. These DB766-resistant (DB766R) parasites were 2-fold more sensitive to miltefosine than wild-type organisms and were hypersensitive to the sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) inhibitors ketoconazole and posaconazole (2,000-fold more sensitive and over 12,000-fold more sensitive than the wild type, respectively). Western blot analysis of DB766R parasites indicated that while expression of CYP51 is slightly increased in these organisms, expression of CYP5122A1, a recently identified cytochrome P450 associated with ergosterol metabolism in Leishmania, is dramatically reduced in DB766R parasites. In vitro susceptibility assays demonstrated that CYP5122A1 half-knockout L. donovani promastigotes were significantly less susceptible to DB766 and more susceptible to ketoconazole than their wild-type counterparts, consistent with observations in DB766R parasites. Further, DB766-posaconazole combinations displayed synergistic activity in both axenic and intracellular L. donovani amastigotes. Taken together, these studies implicate CYP5122A1 in the antileishmanial action of the AIAs and suggest that DB766-azole combinations are potential candidates for the development of synergistic antileishmanial therapy.
Issue No: 8
Appears in Collections:Cell Death Differential Research, Publications

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